47 years have passed since the Emergency declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The declaration of this emergency, which had gripped the country for 21 months, was done on the intervening night of 25-26 June. Jayaprakash Narayan, who called for total revolution against Emergency, called it the dark chapter of Indian democracy. The rights of citizens were limited till 21 March 1977. Speaking against power had become a crime. Leaders of opposition parties were put in jail. Rigorous censorship was imposed on the press. Foreign journalists were deported.
The slums were destroyed in the desired manner. A horrific program of forced sterilization was carried out in the name of family planning. Historians believe that the then President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed had signed the Emergency documents at the behest of Indira. Almost everyone knows this information. But do you know that even before 1975, emergency has been imposed twice in the country. In fact, in 1975, an internal emergency was imposed under Article 352 of the Constitution. Prior to that, the emergency imposed both times was an external emergency.
When was the emergency for the first time: The first emergency in the country was imposed during the tenure of the first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. This emergency lasted from 1962 to 1968. In fact, the Chinese army attacked India on 20 October 1962. This is the first and only war between China and India. Due to the sudden attack from China, India had to impose a state of emergency in the country in view of the protection from external threats. The question arises that when the war with China ended in November 1962, then why did the emergency continue till 1968?
The answer is Pakistan. Yes, because of the neighboring country Pakistan, the emergency has been imposed in the country for a long time. India was defeated by China in the 1962 war. The confidence of the country was broken. Pakistan saw this as an opportunity for itself and attacked in 1965. India gave a befitting reply. There was already a possibility of an attack from Pakistan, so in view of security, the emergency was allowed to continue till 1968.
When was the emergency imposed for the second time: For the second time in the country, Emergency was imposed by Nehru’s daughter Indira. It is the year 1971. Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister. Pakistan was committing atrocities on the people of its own country. Pak army was wreaking havoc in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). The people there were fleeing and taking shelter in India. Later, the agitators of East Pakistan started an armed movement against their own army. Pakistan considered it backed by India and attacked on 3 December 1971. India responded. The results of the war came only after 13 days. On 16 December 1971, General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, Commander of Pakistan, handed over his service revolver to Indian Lieutenant General JS Arora in Dhaka. Even during this war, a state of emergency was imposed to protect the country from external threats. In this way, a total of three times emergency has been imposed in India.